Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education in Sierra Leone

INTRODUCTIONSierra Leone is bounded on the north-west, north west and north-east by the Republic Guinea, on the south-east by the Republic of Liberia and on southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. It’s an area of 27,925 square kilometers.

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The colony of Sierra Leone originated in the sale and cession from 1787 by native chiefs into English lands of a piece of property intended as a home for African American settlers that were waifs in London and afterwards it was used as a settlement for freed African American slaves. Instruction is provided by both personal and state-sponsored schools. The present system of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that is six years Primary school, three years Junior Secondary School, four decades old Secondary School and four years tertiary/higher education. This program is complemented with non- formal education.Idea of EDUCATIONInstruction is often utilized in the sense of instruction in the classroom, laboratory, workshop or national science room and consists mostly in the imparting by the instructor, and the acquisition by students, of information and psychological as well as manual abilities. A broader meaning than instruction is that of schooling. That’s to say all that goes on within the college as part of the student’s life there. It has, among other matters, relationship between students and teachers, students and students both in and outside the school. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that whatever helps to form the human beingto make the person what he is or dissuade him from being what he is not is part of his schooling. Implicitly education is lifelong and ubiquitous; it is the sum total of influences that go to make a man what he is, from birth to death. It includes the house, our neighbors, and the road amongst others.Education would be to some degree a willful planned procedure invented and conducted by the educator with the goal of imbuing the student with specific information, skills, of mind and body as well as modes of behaviour considered desirable. In part it is the learner’s own reply to the environment in which he resides. Education has three focal points: the individual/person upon whom the educator’s influences are brought to bear; the society or community to which he belongs; along with the whole circumstance of reality within the person and culture play their role. Man is a social creature; he develops as a man through the impact of personality on personality; and even because of his basic physical needs he is based upon the help and cooperation of his fellow women and men. Without society as well as the mutual assistance and enrichment of experiences which it provides civilization is impossible and the life of man, in Hobbes’ words, is”solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.”One of the basic facts of human existence is that the pressure between the pull of yesteryear and the forwards urge into the near future, between change and stability, tradition and innovation. For effective living,man desires a circle of security, an area of established customs and relationship that forms reliable relationships. This is also true of the society. For its effective functioning there must be an underlying continuity of outlook and traditions which preserves its identity as a society and protects it against the disruptive effects of change. Change needs to be for life and not static but this change in turn has to be controlled by the fundamental traditions of society. It’s tradition that provides a country its own character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of tradition consequently is always crucial.It’s been recognized from time immemorial that the conservation of conventional education has a vital role to play in the development of the child. The kids of today are the adults of tomorrow; they have to be trained therefore, to inherit and perpetuate the beliefs and styles of life peculiar to the particular society to which they belong. For every society gets the urge to preserve itself not just physically but as neighborhood consciously sharing certain goals, ideals and patterns of behaviour. This type of instruction isn’t necessarily formal in schools by means of classroom education but that effected indirectly through the household and through the influence on the individual of social influences and habits that the child cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social education included elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance where young women and men have to prove themselves worthy of the community. The best goal was to produce an individual who was honest, respectful, skilled, cooperative, and who could conform to the social order of the day. Since Aristotle previously mentioned”the constitution of a state will endure if education is failed. The citizens of a country should be educated to suit the constitution of the state. The type of character appropriate to a constitution would be the power which continues to sustain it as it’s also the country force that originally made it” (p. I).Traditional education has both a creative and conservation function in society; it’s a powerful means of preserving a society’s customs, or even civilization. Previously the nature and needs of society played a vital part in determining the disposition of education. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his publication, Glaucon, that”at a tranquil society the educational system will tend to reflect the social pattern, while social uneasiness and instability create opportunity for utilizing education as an instrument of social change”(p.7). Traditional instruction can be employed to prepare for changes in society and anticipate and prevent modifications or the effects of fluctuations in society.

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